Ministry of Rural Development (Govt. of India), is undertaking the mammoth task of computerization of land records across all states in India to make available all land records on web. Here is a brief outline of Land Record System in India.
What is a Land Record?
“Land Record” is a generic expression that includes rights such as the Register of Lands, Record of Rights, Tenancy and Crop Inspection Register, Mutation Register, Disputed Cases Register etc. It also includes geological information regarding the shape, size, soil-type of the land and economic information related to irrigation and crops.
Land Records are known by various terms in different states in India for eg. Bhulekh, Bhu Abhilekh, Bhumi Abhilekh, Khata, Khasra, Khatauni, Jamabandi, Fard, Satbara (7/12), Patta, Chitta, Adangal, Pahani, Records of Rights (ROR), Record of Rights, Tenancy and Crop Inspection (RTC) etc. We have compiled an exhaustive glossary of terms used in Land Records in India. Check it out here – Land Records Terminology in India.
Land Records in India
The history of land records in India is as old as Indian civilization. Maintenance of these records has gone through a process of evolution. The present system of preparing and maintaining land records originated from the Mughal Period and it reached its scientific form during the British Rule.
The system of correction and updating of land records is very elaborate. Maps depicting land parcels (cadastral maps) are required to be updated every 30 years through the process of survey and settlement operations. A majority of States have not done any survey and settlement operations after Independence. As a consequence, updating of records suffered. There were many hassles and issues of corruption in various processes of land records.
In order to modernize Land Records in India, a centrally-sponsored scheme on Computerisation of Land Records (CLR) was started in 1988-89 as a pilot project in eight districts in eight states. Eventually, digitization of land records started across most of Indian states over the years.
National Land Records Modernization Programme (NLRMP)
Department of Land Resources under Ministry of Rural Development was implementing two Centrally Sponsored Schemes viz.: Computerization of Land Records (CLR) & Strengthening of Revenue Administration and Updating of Land Records (SRA & ULR). In August 2008, the cabinet approved the merger of these schemes into a modified Scheme named National Land Records Modernization Programme (NLRMP).
The NLRMP has three major components:
- Computerization of Land Records including mutations, digitization of maps and integration of textual and spatial data.
- Survey/ Re-Survey and updation of all survey and settlement records including creation of original cadastral records wherever necessary.
- Computerization of Registration and its integration with the land records maintenance system.
The District has been taken as the unit of implementation, where all programme activities are to converge.
The main objective of the NLRMP is to develop a modern, comprehensive and transparent land records management system in the country with the aim to implement the conclusive land-titling system with title guarantee, which will be based on four basic principles:
- a single window to handle land records (including the maintenance and updating of textual records, maps, survey and settlement operations and registration of immovable property),
- the mirror principle, which refers to the fact that cadastral records mirror the ground reality,
- the curtain principle which indicates that the record of title is a true depiction of the ownership status, mutation is automated and automatic following registration and the reference to past records is not necessary, and
- title insurance, which guarantees the title for its correctness and indemnifies the title holder against loss arising on account of any defect therein.
Land Records on Web – Progress so far
Many states have completed the computerization process and put their Land Records on web while some states are in the process of computerization. The progress of various states can be tracked from the website of NLRMP – http://nlrmp.nic.in/
How to check Land Records on Web?
We have provided step-by-step procedure to check land records on web, state wise, here:
Land Records – The Ultimate Guide
If your state has not yet completed the computerization process, you can collect a copy of your Record of Rights from the local Tehsil (Taluka) office of Revenue Department after paying a nominal fee.
Over to You
We need your love! Like, Share and Rate the article if you found it useful.
Have something to say or ask? Please comment below.
- National Land Records Modernization Programme (NLRMP)
- Department of Land Resources
- Ministry of Rural Development, Govt. of India