“Land Records” in India have evolved over decades and centuries. The Land revenue was the main source of revenue for Indian rulers and then for British. The present form of preparation and maintenance of Land Records originated during Mughal period. British broadly followed the recording and maintenance system as followed by Mughals with some variations in revenue collection and land administration systems.
Since, all rulers including British were mainly interested in revenue collection, land ownership details were never standardized and often neglected. Due to non-standardization of Land Records, ownership of land is contested till date, across India. Another problem with Land Records in India is that records are written in non-standard language. It is very difficult for a common man to understand their own records of rights. Corruption and lack of transparency are other issues associated with Land Records in India. Government of India realized these problems and started National Land Records Modernization Programme (NLRMP) with the aim to standardize and computerize all land records in India in a phased manner. Under NLRMP all land records and related services are being made online. Few states have already computerized their land records while some are in the process.
In this guide we have tried to simplify Land Records in India. We hope that you would find it useful.
Topics covered –
- What is “Land Record”?
- Online Land Record System in India
- Understanding Land Records in India – Terminology
- State wise Step-by-Step Guides explaining processes to obtain Land Records
What is a Land Record?
“Land Record” is a generic expression that includes rights such as the Register of Lands, Record of Rights, Tenancy and Crop Inspection Register, Mutation Register, Disputed Cases Register etc. It also includes geological information regarding the shape, size, soil-type of the land and economic information related to irrigation and crops.
Land Records are known by various terms in different states in India for eg. Bhulekh, Bhu Abhilekh, Bhumi Abhilekh, Khata, Khasra, Khatauni, Jamabandi, Fard, Satbara (7/12), Patta, Chitta, Adangal, Pahani, ROR (Records of Rights), RTC (Record of Rights, Tenancy and Crop Inspection) etc.
Online Land Record System in India
Want to know more about Land Record system in India, NLRMP and computerization of Land Records? Check out:
Understanding Land Records in India
We have made an exhaustive glossary of terms used in Land & Revenue Records in India which will help you in understanding land records properly. Check it out here –
Step-by-Step Guides to obtain Land Records
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- National Land Records Modernization Programme (NLRMP)
- Department of Land Resources
- Ministry of Rural Development, Govt. of India